It has usually been ruled by Denmark, but also by Lübeck and Sweden.The ruin of Hammershus, at the northwestern tip of the island, is the largest medieval fortress in northern Europe, testament to the importance of its location.
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On 1 January 2007, the municipality lost its short-lived (2003 until 2006) county status and became part of the Capital Region of Denmark.
The island is situated between 54/59/11 and 55/17/30 northern latitude and 14/45 and 15/11 eastern longitude.
There is a ferry departure strictly reserved for freight of goods between Rønne and Køge. Between Bornholm Airport and Copenhagen Airport by airplane it is 25 minutes.
Directly west of Bornholm across the Baltic Sea mostly on the island of Sjælland are several municipalities of Region Sjælland: Stevns, Faxe, Næstved (the part that used to be the municipality of Fladså) and Vordingborg, including Møn, which is around 135 km (84 mi) across the Baltic Sea.
It typically takes 3 hours for passengers and freight (ferry:2 hours;driving:1 hour) to travel between Rønne and Copenhagen via Ystad in Sweden. There are also ferry routes to Sassnitz and Swinoujscie.